SynD is an automated image analysis routine to analyze dendrite and synapse characteristics in immuno-fluorescence images.


The program analyses 2D immuno-fluorescence images (LSM or TIFF files) of neurons that were labeled with antibodies against a dendrite marker, synaptic vesicle protein and an additional protein of interest. SynD detects soma, neurites and synapses and reports dendrite morphology and branching, synapse size and number but also synaptic vesicle density and synaptic accumulation of proteins as a function of distance from the soma.



How to use SynD


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The article: Schmitz, Hjorth, et al 2011





Studies using SynD (as of 2 February 2013)


Prota AE, Magiera MM, Kuijpers M, Bargsten K, Frey D, Wieser M, Jaussi R, Hoogenraad CC, Kammerer RA, Janke C, Steinmetz MO. Structural basis of tubulin tyrosination by tubulin tyrosine ligase. J Cell Biol. 2013 Jan 28. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201211017.


Nair R, Lauks J, Jung S, Cooke NE, de Wit H, Brose N, Kilimann MW, Verhage M, Rhee J. Neurobeachin regulates neurotransmitter receptor trafficking to synapses. J Cell Biol. 2013 Jan 7;200(1):61-80.

doi: 10.1083/jcb.201207113.


van de Bospoort R, Farina M, Schmitz SK, de Jong A, de Wit H, Verhage M, Toonen RF. Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons. J Cell Biol. 2012 Dec 10;199(6):883-91.

doi: 10.1083/jcb.201208024.


van der Vaart B, Franker MA, Kuijpers M, Hua S, Bouchet BP, Jiang K, Grigoriev I, Hoogenraad CC, Akhmanova A. Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins SLAIN1/2 and ch-TOG promote axonal development.

J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 17;32(42):14722-8. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1240-12.2012.


Meijer M, Burkhardt P, de Wit H, Toonen RF, Fasshauer D, Verhage M. Munc18-1 mutations that strongly impair SNARE-complex binding support normal synaptic transmission. EMBO J 2012 31: 2156 - 2168

doi: 10.1038/emboj.2012.72


de Jong AP, Schmitz SK, Toonen RF, Verhage M. Dendritic position is a major determinant of presynaptic strength. J Cell Biol. 2012 Apr 9. 197 (2): 327-337 doi: 10.1083/jcb.201112135


Williams PA, Piechota M, von Ruhland C, Taylor E, Morgan JE, Votruba M. Opa1 is essential for retinal ganglion cell synaptic architecture and connectivity. Brain 2012 135 (2): 493-505. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr330


Ding JB, Oh WJ, Sabatini BL, Gu C. Semaphorin 3E-Plexin-D1 signaling controls pathway-specific synapse formation in the striatum. Nat Neurosci. 2011 15(2):215-23. doi: 10.1038/nn.3003.

Synapse and neurite detection